Centennial is an aroma variety hop that was released in 1990. It was derived from three-quarters Brewer’s Gold with minor contributions from Fuggle, East Kent Golding and others. It is among the most popular varieties for U.S. craft brewers for both its aromatic and bittering qualities and is sometimes referred to as a “super Cascade.”
Alpha Acid: 9.5% to 11.5%
Possible Substitutions: Amarillo, Cascade
Commercial Examples of Beer that feature Centennial Hops: Bells Two Hearted Ale, Barrier Brewing Ruckus IPA
The flower of the humulus lupus rhimzhone has been instrumental to the evolution of beer. The direction in which hop cultivation in America has progressed has had an amazing influence on craft beer today. This section will focus on this significant development. The pioneers of the American craft beer movement in the 1970’s, such as Sierra Nevada Brewing Company and Anchor Brewing Company, were instrumental in helping improve the quality of hops grown in America. Today, there are 41 hop varieties that make up 99% of the hops grown in the United States. The majority of hops for commercial beer production are grown in the states of Washington, Oregon and Idaho. Some are dopplegangers of traditional European hops, while others are distinctly American. Here is an overview of some important hop vocabulary:
Alpha Acids: The source of most of the bitterness in beer, and thus of great importance to brewers. Hops flowers (cones) have widely varying percentages of alpha acids. American superalpha varieties
Named after Oregon’s Willamette River, which runs through that state’s hop growing region, Willamette was released in 1976 from the U.S.D.A. breeding program. It is a daughter of the classic English variety, Fuggle, and is characterized by a low alpha content and mild aroma. Willamette is the most widely grown U.S. aroma hop. It imparts a mild, slightly spicy, and pleasant aroma in beer.
Alpha Acids 4.0 – 6.0%
Cohumulone (% of alpha acids) 30 – 35%
Possible Substitutions: Fuggle, Tettnang, Styrian Golding
Warrior is a high alpha variety of recent origin developed by Yakima Chief Ranches. It is used both for its aromatic properties and especially for its bittering properties, due to its low cohumulone content.
Alpha Acids 15 – 18%
Cohumulone (% of alpha acids) 24%
Possible Substitutions: Nugget, Columbus, Magnum
Commercial Example of a beer featuring warrior hops: see image please!
Simcoe is a bittering/aroma variety bred by Yakima Chief Ranches and released in 2000. It is used for its bittering properties and aroma qualities that impart a unique, pine-like aroma. It is very popular in American style Ales.
Alpha Acids 12 – 14%
Cohumulone (% of alpha acids) 15 – 20%
Possible Substitutions: Summit, Magnum
Commercial Examples of Beer that feature Simcoe Hops: Weyebacher Double Simcoe IPA
Millennium is a high alpha variety bred in the John I. Haas, Inc. breeding program and released in 2000. Its brewing profile is comparable to Nugget and Columbus, being used primarily as a bittering hop with strong alpha potential.
Alpha Acids 14.5 – 16.5%
Cohumulone (% of alpha acids) 28 – 32%
Nugget is a high alpha variety released in 1983 from the U.S.D.A. breeding program in Oregon. It is characterized by a mild herbal aroma, a low proportion of cohumulone, and good storage stability. It is used by brewers both for bittering and for its aroma profile. Nugget is one of the most widely grown varieties in Oregon and also has significant acreage in Washington State.
Alpha Acids 11.5 – 14.0%
Cohumulone (% of alpha acids) 22 – 26%
Possible Substitutions: Galena, CTZ, Magnum
Commercial example of beer featuring nugget hops: Troeg’s Nugget Nectar
Horizon is a half-sister to Nugget. It is generally considered a dual purpose hop with medium alpha and good aroma. Horizon has a pungent, powerful aroma of resin/candy and citrus with some spicy, peppery notes. It’s low cohumulone results in a clean tasting beer.
Alpha Acids 11 – 13%
Cohumulone (% of alpha acids) 16 – 19%
Possible Substitutions: Magnum
Glacier is a dual-purpose hop with well balanced bittering properties and a pleasant aroma profile. It was released in 2000 from the Washington State University breeding program. It is commonly used in beer styles such as Pale Ale, ESB, Bitter, English-Style Pale Ale, Porter, and Stout.
Alpha Acids 5.5%
Cohumulone (% of alpha acids) 11 – 13%
Possible Substitutions: Willamette
Galena is a high alpha variety that was developed in the Idaho state breeding program in 1978. It has balanced bittering properties combined with an agreeable aroma profile. Galena’s storage stability is excellent. It has often used in both English and American-style Ales.
Alpha Acids 11.5 – 13.5%
Cohumulone (% of alpha acids) 36 – 40%
Possible Substitutions: Nugget, CTZ
Commercial example of beer featuring galena hops: Wandering Star Thunderbolt IPA